Historic Preservation Organizations
Index By Type
U.S Government Organizations.
Resource No. 187
Advisory Council on Historic PreservationThe Advisory Council on Historic Preservation is an independent Federal agency that promotes the preservation, enhancement, and productive use of our Nation's historic resources and advises the President and Congress on national historic preservation policy.
Resource No. 195
National Register of Historic PlacesThe National Register of Historic Places is the Nation's official list of cultural resources worthy of preservation. Authorized under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the National Register is part of a national program to coordinate and support public and private efforts to identify, evaluate, and protect our historic and archeological resources. Properties listed in the Register include districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that are significant in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture. The National Register is administered by the National Park Service, which is part of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
Resource No. 186
National Trust for Historic PreservationThe National Trust for Historic Preservation provides leadership, education and advocacy to save America's diverse historic places and revitalize our communities. Chartered by Congress in 1949, this is a nonprofit organization with 200,000 members. The site features exciting historic travel destinations, old house fix-up tips, news, shopping ideas, and much more.
National and Regional Organizations.
Resource No. 189
Heritage PreservationFor over a quarter century, Heritage Preservation has been working to ensure the preservation of America's collections for present and future generations. We are the nation's leading nonprofit advocate for the proper care of all our cultural heritage: works of art, books and archives, documents and photographs, architecture, monuments, natural science specimens, and family heirlooms.
Resource No. 192
Historic New EnglandHistoric New England is a 100 year old preservation organization preserving New England history, artifacts, homes, landscapes and stories.
Resource No. 188
History Channel's Save Our History Initiative® created the Save Our History initiative to support local history education and historic preservation in communities across the country. The initiative includes the Save Our History Grant Program which funds partnerships between local history organizations and schools on community preservation projects, free educational resources for elementary, middle, and high school teachers interested in making local history and preservation a component of their curriculum, and cash prizes and scholarships for teachers and students who demonstrate an exceptional commitment to local history education and preservation.
Resource No. 193
National Alliance of Preservation CommissionsThe NAPC is the only organization devoted solely to representing the nation's preservation design review commissions. NAPC provides technical support and manages an information network to help local commissions accomplishing their preservation objectives. The Alliance also serves as an advocate at federal, state and local levels of government to promote policies and programs that support preservation commission efforts.
Resource No. 196
Preservation Trades NetworkPTN was conceived in 1995 at an Association for Preservation Technology (APT) conference roundtable strategy session in Washington, DC. At the time, representatives of the preservation trades felt it important for the preservation trades to be recognized as a valued member of preservation project teams. To do this, the preservation trades took action to build a community of like-minded individuals who share knowledge of the process of historic preservation as it occurs in the field. PTN was formed to provide a focus on and support of the sharing of the preservation trade's knowledge of the physical process of preservation, of how to shape and work historic materials. From this beginning PTN became a Task Force of APT.
Resource No. 197
Preserve and ProtectA not-for-profit corporation providing space on the World Wide Web for Historic Preservation and Environmental Protection Organizations.
Resource No. 199
PreserveNetreserveNet is designed to provide preservationists with a comprehensive database of regularly updated internet resources and current professional opportunities. Established in 1994 by Cornell University's Michael Tomlan and Bob Pick, PreserveNet was the result of a collaborative effort by preservation students of various universities interested in providing preservation information in what was then a new and exciting arena, the internet. Updated and expanded in 2001, PreserveNet continues to utilize the many internet resources of various preservation organizations and maintains a current listing of professional and educational opportunities.
Resource No. 200
Society for North American HomesAn association of owners and prospective owners of historic (old) American homes. Our mission is to advocate for sound stewardship of these properties and to encourage ownership in them.
Resource No. 201
Traditional Building Skills InstituteThe Traditional Building Skills Institute offers workshops to architects, builders, contractors, trades people, students, educators and homeowners to further the art of traditional building skills for the purpose of restoring and preserving historic properties. A one-year course of study leads to a certificate in historic preservation and restoration technology; a two-year course to an Associate of Applied Science or an Associate of Science in Building Construction and Construction Management.
Resource No. 202
The Victorian Society In AmericaThe Victorian Society In America is the only national non-profit organization committed to historic preservation, protection, understanding, education, and enjoyment of our nineteenth century heritage.
State Historic Preservation Offices.
These are the official state-level agencies established as a result of The National Historic Preservation Act, passed in 1966 by the US Congress.
These agencies, often referred to as 'SHPOs', manage nominations to the National Register of Historic Places. Typically they also manage state-level grants and other incentive programs related to old houses.
Resource No. 203
Alabama Historic Commission
Resource No. 204
Division of Parks, Office of History and Archeology
Resource No. 1018
American Samoa Historic Preservation Office
Resource No. 205
Arizona State Parks
Resource No. 206
Arkansas Historic Preservation Program
Little Rock, Arkansas
Resource No. 209
Office of Historic Preservation - Department Of Parks and Recreation- CA
Resource No. 212
Resource No. 213
Connecticut Historical Commission
Dist. of Col.
Resource No. 216
State Historic Preservation Office
East, Washington, Dist. of Col.
Resource No. 217
Florida Historical Commission
Resource No. 219
State Historic Preservation Office - Historic Preservation Division
Resource No. 913
Hawaii State Historic Preservation Office
Kapolei, HawaiiThe State Historic Preservation Division of DLNR works to preserve and sustain reminders of earlier times which link the past to the present. SHPD’s three branches, History and Culture, Archaeology, and Architecture, strive to accomplish this goal through a number of different activities.
Resource No. 1019
Idaho State Historic Preservation Office
Resource No. 223
Illinois Historic Preservation Agency
Resource No. 914
Indiana State Preservation Office
Resource No. 227
State Historical Society of Iowa
Des Moines, Iowa
Resource No. 229
Kansas State Historical Society
Resource No. 400
Kentucky Heritage Council
KentuckyFor more than 40 years, the Kentucky Heritage Council / State Historic Preservation Office has been assisting individuals, communities and local governments with making historic preservation an important component of comprehensive community planning and economic development.
Resource No. 405
Louisiana State Parks and Historical Sites
Resource No. 406
Maine Historic Preservation Commission
Resource No. 1020
Marshall Islands Historic Preservation Office
Majuro, Marshall IslandsTo identify, protect, preserve, and promote the cultural, historic, and prehistoric resources of the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Resource No. 410
Baltimore, MarylandPreservation Maryland is dedicated to preserving Maryland's historic buildings, neighborhoods, landscapes and archaeological sites through education, outreach, and advocacy.
Resource No. 412
Massachusetts Historical Commission
Boston, MassachusettsThe continuing presence of historic properties in Massachusetts immeasurably enhances the quality of our lives; they help to establish our sense of place and to define the very character of our communities.
Resource No. 1021
Michigan State Historic Preservation Office
MichiganTo identify, protect, preserve, and promote the cultural, historic, and prehistoric resources of the Republic of the Marshall Islands
Resource No. 414
Minnesota Historical Society
St. Paul , MinnesotaThe Minnesota Historical Society preserves Minnesota's past, shares our state's stories and connects people with history in meaningful ways, for today and for tomorrow. Because history matters!
Resource No. 416
Mississippi Department of Archives and History
MississippiA comprehensive historical agency, the department collects, preserves, and provides access to the archival resources of the state, administers museums and historic sites, and oversees statewide programs for historic preservation, government records management, and publications.
Resource No. 417
Missouri State Historic Preservation Office
Jefferson City, Missouri
Resource No. 419
Montana Historical Society
Helena, MontanaThe Montana Historical Society is the guardian of Montana's memory. Established in 1865, the oldest institution of its kind in the West, the MHS's vast historic collections of artifacts, photographs, and documents are exhibited in six extraordinary galleries. In 1969, we became the official state Archives and the repository for state agency records of permanent value.
Resource No. 420
Nebraska State Historical Society
Lincoln, Nebraska"The Nebraska State Historical Society collects, preserves, and opens to all, the histories we share."
Resource No. 421
Nevada State Historic Preservation Office
Carson City, NevadaThe State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) encourages the preservation, documentation, and use of cultural resources through state and federal programs. The agency works to educate the public about the importance of our cultural heritage so that Nevada’s historic and archaeological properties are preserved, interpreted, and reused for their economic, educational, and intrinsic values and for future generations to appreciate.
Resource No. 423
New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources
Concord, New Hampshire
Resource No. 425
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
Resource No. 427
New Mexico Historic Preservation Division
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Resource No. 428
New York State Parks Historic Preservation Division
Waterford, New York
Resource No. 430
North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office
Raleigh, North Carolina
Resource No. 440
State Historical Society of North Dakota
Bismarck, North Dakota
Resource No. 441
Ohio Historic Preservation Office
Resource No. 443
Oklahoma Historical Society
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Resource No. 445
Oregon Heritage Conservation
Resource No. 447
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
Resource No. 1022
Puerto Rico State Historic Preservation Office
San Juan, Puerto Rico
Resource No. 915
Rhode Island Historical Preservation & Heritage Commission
Providence,, Rhode Island
Resource No. 451
South Carolina Department of Archives and History
Columbia, South Carolina
Resource No. 454
Association for the Preservation of Tennessee Antiquities
TennesseeThe Association for the Preservation of Tennessee Antiquities (APTA) is the oldest statewide nonprofit historic preservation organization in the State of Tennessee and is the fourth oldest in the nation. The APTA has maintained and preserved over 20 historic sites since it was founded in 1951. The APTA mission is to promote and encourage active participation in the preservation of Tennessee’s rich historic, cultural, architectural and archeological heritage through restoration, education, advocacy and statewide cooperation. The APTA has 14 chapters across the state of Tennessee that are actively working to maintain and preserve 16 historic sites and that act as advocates for historic preservation in their cities and counties. We understand the importance of heritage tourism and education and their impact on Tennessee’s economy and future.
Resource No. 459
Austin, TexasWe are the only Texas statewide non-profit preservation organization, a partner of the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
Resource No. 460
Utah Heritage Foundation
Salt Lake City, UtahEstablished in 1966, Utah Heritage Foundation was the first statewide preservation organization in the western United States. Utah Heritage Foundation reaches communities throughout the state through a wide range of programs and activities.
Resource No. 917
Agency of Commerce & Community Development
Resource No. 1017
Virginia Department of Historic Resources
Richmond, VirginiaOur mission is to foster, encourage, and support the stewardship of Virginia's significant historic architectural, archaeological, and cultural resources.
Resource No. 468
West Virginia Division of Culture and History
Charleston, West VirginiaThe mission of the West Virginia Division of Culture and History is to identify, preserve, protect, promote and present the ideas, arts and artifacts of West Virginia’s heritage, building pride in our past accomplishments and confidence in our future.
Resource No. 472
Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office
Cheyenne, WyomingThe Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office documents, preserves and promotes Wyoming’s heritage with our preservation partners.
Local and State Organizations.
Resource No. 208
Alameda Architectural Preservation Society
Alameda, CaliforniaThe AAPS is dedicated to preserving the architectural history in the city of Alameda, California.
Resource No. 210
The Old Escondido Historic District
Escondido, CaliforniaFrom tiny bungalows to magnificent Victorian homes, the Old Escondido Historic District contains the majority of Escondido's historic resources. It is a wonderful place to walk or tour by car.
Resource No. 211
Save Our Heritage
San Diego, CaliforniaSave Our Heritage Organization, SOHO, is a private, member-based 501c3 non-profit organization, formed in 1969 to save a single home, the 1887 Sherman Gilbert House. This small group of concerned citizens has become the third largest group of its kind in California, with thousands of members and subscribers, hundreds of volunteers, and an administrative, museum and retail staff of over 30. SOHO is based in Old Town San Diego, the birthplace of California. We manage and operate historic sites and resources throughout San Diego County. We are the only countywide historic preservation organization, in a county that encompasses 18 incorporated cities and numerous neighborhoods and communities. SOHO works on a wide range of preservation issues throughout San Diego County. All our advocacy efforts share a common goal: to protect and preserve the historic architectural and cultural resources of our region
Resource No. 214
Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation
Hamden, ConnecticutThe Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation is nonprofit statewide membership organization established in 1975. Working with local preservation groups and individuals as well as with statewide organizations, it encourages, advocates and facilitates historic preservation throughout Connecticut.
Resource No. 218
Riverside Avondale Preservation
Jacksonville, FloridaRiverside Avondale Preservation Inc. (RAP) is a private, non-profit membership organization whose mission is to enhance and preserve the architecture, history, cultural heritage and economic viability of the historic neighborhoods of Riverside and Avondale in Jacksonville, FL. RAP encourages community participation, promotes preservation education, and sponsors events that highlight the history, architecture and cultural vibrancy of the district.
Resource No. 220
The Georgia Trust
Atlanta, GeorgiaThe Georgia Trust for Historic Preservation promotes an appreciation of Georgia's diverse historic resources and provides for their protection and use to reclaim, restore and revitalize the state's historic places and communities.
Resource No. 221
Department Of Land and Natural Resources
Resource No. 222
Idaho State Historical Society
Resource No. 225
Historic Chicago Bungalow Association
Chicago, IllinoisThe Historic Chicago Bungalow Association and the City of Chicago provides the resources necessary to ensure that the city's approximately 80,000 Chicago bungalows remain a housing choice for families through the Historic Chicago Bungalow Initiative.
Resource No. 224
Resource No. 226
Quincy, IllinoisThe mission of Quincy Preserves, Inc., is to foster awareness of and to promote appreciation of the historic architecture of Quincy, Illinois, and Adams County and to encourage active membership involvement in the recognizing, protecting, maintaining, and displaying of these structures.
Resource No. 231
Lawrence Preservation Alliance
Lawrence, KansasThe mission of Lawrence Preservation Alliance is to preserve historically significant buildings and natural environments, and to educate the community about the benefits of historic preservation.
Resource No. 228
Kansas Preservation Alliance, Inc.
Topeka, KansasThe Kansas Preservation Alliance is the state-wide not-for-profit advocacy organization for historic preservation. KPA is dedicated to supporting the preservation of Kansas' heritage through education, advocacy, cooperating with like-minded individuals or groups, and participation of historic structures and places.
Resource No. 191
Historic Homes Foundation, Inc.
Louisville, KentuckyA non-profit corporation chartered in 1957 for the purpose of purchasing, preserving and displaying historic buildings and their collections, as well as for furthering the advancement of education, culture and the arts in Kentucky. Three historic houses: Farmington, the Thomas Edison House and Whitehall, are presently owned and managed by the Foundation.
Resource No. 402
Kentucky Trust for Historic Preservation
Louisville, KentuckyAn independent, non-profit 501(c) (3), bricks and mortar organization, which uses hands-on approaches to save Kentucky's endangered buildings and sites.
Resource No. 401
Old Louisville Guide
Louisville, KentuckyOld Louisville National Historic Preservation District America's Victorian Treasure. The Old Louisville Guide has everything about historic preservation in Louisville, Kentucky. Complete with events, museum info, library info, walking tour schedules, and historic property features, this site is a must see.
Resource No. 404
Foundation for Historical Louisiana
Baton Rouge, LouisianaFHL mission is to preserve the architectural and cultural heritage of Louisiana. Headquarters is located in the 1930 Old Governor's Mansion, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is a replica of the White House, built by Governor Huey P. Long. Besides being a historic house museum, it is a venue for special public and private events.
Resource No. 408
Greater Portland Landmarks, Inc.
Portland, MaineGreater Portland Landmarks promotes preservation and revitalization of historic buildings, neighborhoods, and landscapes and encourages high-quality new architecture to enhance the livability and economic vitality of Portland and surrounding communities. We house the Frances Peabody Research Library, and we restored and run the Portland Observatory Museum, a National Historic Landmark and the last remaining maritime signal tower in the country (1807).
Resource No. 407
Yarmouth, MaineMaine Preservation is the statewide, non-profit preservation organization (1972) for Maine. Staff of four; includes seed grant program, revolving fund, and preservation easements program.
Resource No. 409
Maryland Historical Trust
Crownsville, MarylandPreserving and interpreting the legacy of Maryland’s past.
Resource No. 411
Rockville, MarylandPeerless Rockville is an award-winning nonprofit, community-based organization founded in 1974 to preserve buildings, objects and information important to Rockville's heritage. Peerless Rockville advances its goals through education, example, advocacy, and community involvement.
Resource No. 413
Michigan Historical Center
Resource No. 415
Preservation Specialists Directory
MinnesotaThe Preservation Specialists Directory is an online searchable database of contractors, suppliers and other preservation- and history-related specialists who work in Minnesota.
Resource No. 230
Kansas City Bungalow Club
Kansas City, MissouriThe Kansas City Bungalow Club is an advocacy, educational and social organization dedicated to promoting the restoration and preservation of all types of bungalows in the Kansas City area.
Resource No. 418
St. Joseph Preservation, Inc.
St. Joseph, Missouri
Resource No. 422
Nevada Preservation Foundation
Las Vegas, NevadaThe Nevada Preservation Foundation promotes the appreciation and preservation of our architectural heritage through community outreach, educational programming and historic designation assistance.
Resource No. 374
Alloway History/Community News & Events Sharing Group
New JerseyDedicated to preserving the historical past of Alloway.
Resource No. 424
Historical Society of Princeton
Princeton, New JerseyThe mission of the Historical Society of Princeton is to collect and preserve materials pertaining to the town and its environs, and to interpret the history of the area through exhibitions, educational programs, and publications. Since its founding in 1938, the Historical Society has amassed, recorded, and exhibited a collection of over 40,000 artifacts, manuscripts, photographs, decorative arts objects, artworks, and articles of clothing dating from the 17th century to the present, and has offered a broad range of educational services and activities to local residents, students, scholars, and visitors from around the world. The HSP maintains two historic sites, Bainbridge House and the Updike Farmstead.
Resource No. 426
Bergen County Historical Society
River Edge, New JerseyThe Bergen County Historical Society, was founded in 1902 to develop public appreciation for Bergen County's remarkable history, especially through the preservation and study of its material culture. We are the only historical association to focus on the Bergen County, NJ as a whole, from its prehistory to the present day. The Steuben House, Campbell-Christie House and Demarest House are landmarks of Bergen Dutch sandstone architecture, popularly called "Dutch Colonial" and frequently seen and admired throughout northern NJ. The Steuben House still stands on its original site.
Resource No. 429
Aurora Coalition, Inc.
Aurora, New YorkWe are an upstate New York grass-roots historic community preservation organization.
Resource No. 431
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Historic Landmarks Commission
Charlotte, North Carolina
Resource No. 438
Historic Preservation Society of Durham
Durham, North Carolina
Resource No. 437
Raleigh, North CarolinaHistoric Oakwood is listed in the National Register of Historic Places and remains the only intact 19th century neighborhood in Raleigh, NC. It is a key tourist attraction and it is home to hundreds of lovingly restored Victorian, Queen Anne, Colonial and Arts & Crafts style homes.
Resource No. 436
Preservation North Carolina
Raleigh, North Carolina
Resource No. 439
Downtown Salisbury Inc.
Salisbury, North Carolina
Resource No. 442
Columbus, OhioWe are the statewide preservation partner with the National Trust for historic preservation here in Ohio. Heritage Ohio exists to help people to save the places that matter; build community; and live better.
Resource No. 444
Saline Preservation Association
Pryor, OklahomaEstablished in 2003 to promote historic preservation and restoration within the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. Current major project is the Saline National Park, a rural 14 acre park with the only remaining rural district courthouse of the Cherokee National.
Resource No. 446
Pacific Northwest Field School
Eugene, OregonThe University of Oregon's Historic Preservation Program is an interdisciplinary program within the School of Architecture and Allied Arts. The graduate program was established in 1980, and an undergraduate minor, open to any university major upon approval, was initiated in 1987. The courses, faculty and administration are interdepartmental. The Director of the Program and the administrative committee are appointed by the Dean.
Resource No. 449
Philadelphia Society for the Preservation of Landmarks
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaThe Philadelphia Society for the Preservation of Landmarks inspires people to engage with history by preserving our unique historic sites and by providing related historical, educational and cultural programming.
Resource No. 448
Young Preservationists Association of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaIncorporated in 2002, the YPA is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit comprised of dynamic preservation leaders throughout the region organized to ignite a new historic preservation movement in southwestern Pennsylvania.
Resource No. 450
Preserve Rhode Island
Providence, Rhode Island
Resource No. 452
Hampton Heights Neighborhood Association
Spartanburg, South Carolina
Resource No. 403
South Dakota State Historical Society
Pierre, South Dakota
Resource No. 455
Tennessee Historical Commission
Nashville, TennesseeThe Tennessee Historical Commission is the State Historic Preservation Office for Tennessee. Its mission is to protect, preserve, interpret, maintain, and administer historic places; to encourage the inclusive diverse study of Tennessee's history for the benefit of future generations; to mark important locations, persons, and events in Tennessee history; to assist in worthy publication projects; to review, comment on and identify projects that will potentially impact historic properties; to locate, identify, record, and nominate to the National Register of Historic Places all properties which meet National Register criteria, and to implement other programs of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 as amended. The Tennessee Historical Commission is an independent state agency, attached to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation for purposes of administration.
Resource No. 456
Texas Historical Commission
Austin, TexasThe Texas Historical Commission (THC) is the state agency for historic preservation. We save the real places that tell the real stories of Texas.
Resource No. 457
Greater Houston Preservation Alliance
Houston, TexasGreater Houston Preservation Alliance (GHPA) promotes the preservation and appreciation of Houston's architectural and cultural historic resources through education, advocacy and committed action, thereby creating economic value, developing a stronger sense of community, and improving the quality of life for all Houstonians.
Resource No. 458
Houston, TexasHistoric Houston is a 501 (c) (3) non-profit dedicated to preservation and conservation of Houston's architecture and architectural resources through research, education, and advocacy for sustainable design. Historic Houston operates a salvage warehouse open to the public to facilitate the renovation and restoration of historic structures and has moved 24 historic homes to prevent demolition.
Resource No. 461
Utah State Historical Society
Salt Lake City, UtahUtah State History’s mission is to preserve and share the past for a better present and future. As a state agency, we provide services, technical assistance, and information to many different businesses, industries, agencies, and individuals.
Resource No. 463
The Preservation Trust of Vermont
Burlington, VermontThe Preservation Trust of Vermont is a charitable, nonprofit organization founded in 1980 to initiate, stimulate and assist local and statewide efforts to preserve and use Vermont's rich collection of historic, architectural cultural and community resources.
Resource No. 462
Vermont Division for Historic Preservation
Montpelier, VermontThe Vermont Division for Historic Preservation keeps hundreds of years of history alive and vital, engaging people of all walks in Vermont’s past through collecting, preserving and discovering a shared priority and value for the human spirit that preceded us.
Resource No. 465
APVA Preservation Virginia
Richmond, VirginiaThrough the Historic Property Revolving Fund, the APVA Preservation Virginia helps protect and preserve publicly significant historic properties in Virginia by using options to purchase, direct acquisition, or deed of gift to acquire threatened or endangered properties.
Resource No. 464
Virginia Department of Historic Resources
Richmond, VirginiaThe Virginia Department of Historic Resources is the State Historic Preservation Office. Our mission is to foster, encourage, and support the stewardship of Virginia's significant historic architectural, archaeological, and cultural resources.
Resource No. 466
Washington Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation
Olympia, WashingtonThe Department of Archaeology and Historic Preservation is Washington State's primary agency with knowledge and expertise in historic preservation. We advocate for the preservation of Washington's irreplaceable historic and cultural resources—significant buildings, structures, sites, objects, and districts—as assets for the future.
Resource No. 467
Preservation Alliance of West Virginia
Elkins, West VirginiaPreservation Alliance of WV is the grassroots, statewide nonprofit organization dedicated to the support and promotion of historic preservation through direct assistance, education, advocacy, and heritage tourism.
Resource No. 471
The Wisconsin Historical Society
Resource No. 470
Watertown Historical Society
Resource No. 469
Alliance for Historic Wyoming
Laramie, WyomingThe Alliance for Historic Wyoming is Wyoming's only active statewide historic preservation nonprofit. A 501(c)(3), AHW is dedicated to protecting Wyoming's historic and cultural resources in both the built and natural environments.